Age-related desease connected to telemores

What happens to us as we age? Can we overcome it?

Aging is annoying, but it’s the only way to live long

With age, changes occur in the human body, which are primarily manifested by a decrease in many biological functions and also a decrease in adaptability to changes associated with metabolic and psychological stress. These physiological changes are usually accompanied by changes in behavior.

The biological aspects of aging include not only the changes caused by aging, but also significant worsening of the overall state of health or at least contribution to this change.
Aging has a lot to do with wear and tear. The human body resembles a complex machine, which, after reaching a certain limit of its existence, begins to age relatively quickly (the hull loses endurance, some parts fail, the engine loses power). The aging rate of a machine depends on the quality of the metal it is made from, the way it is operated and the maintenace. And it is similar with the human, and every living, organism.

Thus, human aging also depends on the properties of its construction – ie on its original natural conditions and acquired charcteristics (upgrades) and also on the nature of the use of the body – ie ways of working, rest, nutrition. This provided that there are no congenital specific traits or genetic abnormalities. Specific features of the body’s systems are very important for human survival.

It is important to realize that aging is a dynamic and complex cascade of events. It does not have a single starting point or event that can be called the root cause.
Crucially, after the age of 40, mortality from chronic diseases increases and after the age of 60 increases sharply.

Until now, medical and research clinical practice has been limited to either symptoms (eg pain) or specific problems caused by changes in gene expression (eg inflammation). However, only such narrow views lead to many clinical failures and disappointments in attempts to treat age-related diseases. But there are other ways that have already been explored and tested.

Age-related diseases

With a change in overall health, people in later life are more vulnerable to disease, many of which are associated with reduced immune system efficiency. These diseases are called diseases of the elderly. It is usually a combination of signs of aging and diseases that the body cannot fight as before. For example, a young person can recover quickly from pneumonia, but in an older person, the disease can be fatal for him.

The efficiency of many vital organs, such as the brain, heart, lungs, is reduced. This decrease is partly due to the loss of cells in these organs and a reduction in the ability to restore them. In addition, older people’s cells, due to fewer cell divisions, are not always able to perform their functions on time and just as efficiently as needed. Some cellular enzymes also reduce their effectiveness. The risk of the occurrence and speed of some genetic mutations increases.

Age-related diseases develop when genetic deficiencies occur due to telomere shortening

This is the relationship between genetic predisposition and age-related diseases. For example, take a gene that increases the risk of heart disease. This gene does not show up as atherosclerosis when you are 5 years old, but after 50 years it can significantly change your life and even kill you. Likewise, lack of physical activity, poor diet and smoking will not cause a heart attack right away, but it can happen as you age. Thus, there is roughly the same relationship between lifestyle and certain age-related diseases. In fact, the disease is not caused by genes, but gene expression and gene expression is controlled by many factors.

Genes may or may not cause disease, depending on what is expressed in the data, on specific circumstances. Even a “dangerous gene” does not cause any problems if its expression is insufficient or its manifestations are limited by certain circumstances. These circumstances include lifestyle, the environment, psychological factors, other genes including modulators, modifiers and regulators (inside and out effects) and, of course, biological age. For this reason, genes that are completely harmless in youth can become deadly in old age.

Telomeres shorten with age, which is why many genes change expression patterns. In some, expression is enhanced, in others it is attenuated, in some the response to other genes or the effects of cytokines changes, others response to the environment. If we realize the fact that changes in gene expression can be caused by telomere shortening, then with a tool affecting telomeres, we can do something about age-related diseases. By prolonging telomeres and restoring gene expression, we can treat age-related diseases.

Age and telomeres

There are now all reasons to treat aging, not as an inevitable set of specific changes that cause a particular disease, but as a circumstance whose results can be mitigated. Age-related diseases prevention should be considered.

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